Lesson 1 - Fundamentals of Control Loops
Definitions; Process sensors; Sensor characteristics; Controllers; Recorders; Signal conditioners; Final control elements
Learning Objectives:– Explain the difference between an open loop and a closed loop.
– Define error, feedback, disturbance, and feedforward control.
– List several kinds of process sensors and describe the operation of each.
– Explain how accuracy, resolution, sensitivity, linearity, and step response affect sensor operation.
– Describe the functions of process controllers, recorders, signal conditioners, and final control elements.
– Explain the basic operation of a typical control loop.
Lesson 2 - Control Loop Characteristics
Two-position and floating control; Proportional, integral, derivative, and PID mode; Supervisory control; DDC; DCS
Learning Objectives:– Describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous control modes and give an example of each.
– Describe the action of the various continuous control modes.
– Define proportional band, reset time, and rate time.
– Discuss the advantages of each of the combination control modes.
– Name several advantages of digital controllers.
– Discuss the differences between supervisory control, direct digital control, and distributed control systems.
Lesson 3 - Advanced Control Methods
Cascade and ratio control system; Feedforward control; Ratio control in a secondary loop; Multivariable control systems
Learning Objectives:– Describe how a cascade control system works.
– Identify the primary and secondary variables in a cascade loop.
– Compare feedforward and feedback control.
– Identify dependent and independent variables in ratio control.
– Explain the advantage of having a secondary control loop in ratio control.
– Describe how a multivariable control system works and define interaction.
Lesson 4 - Loop Dynamics
Effects of process time lag; Dead time compensation; System stability; Transient response; Gain; Phase shift
– Describe two kinds of process time lags and give an example of each.
– Discuss the effects of capacitance and resistance on loop dynamics.
– State the three main objectives of a well-designed process control system.
– Describe how PI, PD, and PID controllers are adjusted to achieve optimum response.
– Discuss the effects of system gain and phase shift on system stability.
Lesson 5 - Loop Protection
Explosion-proof enclosures; Intrinsically safe instrument systems; Fail-safe mechanisms; Hard and soft constraints; Alarms
– Discuss the classification of hazardous locations as identified in the NEC Handbook.
– Define volatility and flash point, and explain the purpose of a purged enclosure.
– Describe two kinds of explosion-proof enclosures.
– Discuss ways of making a system intrinsically safe.
– Describe examples of fail-safe mechanisms, and differentiate between hard and soft constraints.
– Compare latching and nonlatching alarm systems, and explain the function of annunciators.
– Discuss the purpose and operation of interlocked and sequential control.
Lesson 6 - Process Control Symbols and Drawings
Symbol recognition; Piping and instrument drawing; Location and installation drawing; Loop and wiring diagram
– Recognize standard symbols used in process control diagrams.
– Describe a process control system through the use of instrument symbols.
– Recognize and use four kinds of process control diagrams.
– Analyze a process control drawing for the elements, signal flow, and process flow.
Lesson 7 - Flowcharts and Electrical Diagrams
Sequence of operation; Flowchart; Switches; Relays; Electrical elementary diagram; Pump system schematic; PLC diagram; Symbols
– Convert sequence-of-operation text to a flowchart.
– Read electrical and electronic control diagrams and drawings.
– Recognize symbols used on electrical and electronic diagrams, including those for PLCs and SAMA logic.
– Convert electrical diagrams to PLC diagrams.
– Discuss the role of computers in process control.