Lesson 1 - Process Data Transmission Methods

Topics:

Data handling; Local and remote indicators; Mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electronic, optical - and telemetric data transmission

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the differences between data transmission in open- and closed-loop systems and with local and remote indicators.
– Discuss the differences among analog, digital, and discrete control.
– Discuss the use of intrinsically safe and explosion-proof equipment.
– List the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic data transmission.
– Compare voltage-loop and current-loop transmission for analog data and explain the importance of resolution for digital data transmission.
– List the advantages and disadvantages of optical and telemetric data transmission.

Lesson 2 - Electrical Data Transmission

Topics:

Analog and digital data; Electronic PV indicators; Signal conditioning and conversion; Compensation; Span and zero adjustment; Linearization

Learning Objectives:
– Compare analog and digital data representation.
– Discuss uses for bar graph displays, CRT displays, recorders, and data loggers.
– Describe the characteristics of the electrical output signals from analog sensors and transducers, using a strain gauge as an example.
– Discuss the significance of the common-mode rejection ratio in signal conditioning.
– Describe the processes of signal conversion, compensation, zero and span adjustment, linearization, and conversion to engineering units.

Lesson 3 - Digital Data Transmission

Topics:

Number systems; Data formats; ASCII; Error correction; Analog-to-digital conversion; Distributed process control; Parallel and serial data transmission

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss the differences between analog and digital data forms.
– Discuss several reasons for using digital data.
– Describe methods used to interface process control data signals to a communications network.
– Explain how analog data are converted to digital form for transmission and display.
– Discuss the differences between parallel and serial data transmission systems.

Lesson 4 - Optical Data Transmission

Topics:

Fiber optic cable, connection, and transmission advantages; Optical propagation; Installation of cables; Light sources; Detectors; Standards

Learning Objectives:
– Name the basic elements in a data transmission system based on light energy.
– Explain how optoisolators work and why they are used.
– Describe the advantages and disadvantages of optical data transmission.
– Explain how light rays are propagated down glass fibers.
– Discuss connection and installation methods for fiber optic cables.
– Discuss the selection of light sources and detectors.

Lesson 5 - Data Transmission Interference

Topics:

Electrical and process noise; Signal-to-noise ratio; Power line noise; Electromagnetic interference; Capacitive coupling; Ground loops; Noise reduction techniques; Electrostatic shielding

Learning Objectives:
– Define electrical noise, process noise, and the signal-to-noise ratio.
– Explain how ac power lines, EMI, capacitive coupling, and ground loops cause electrical noise.
– Describe two kinds of noise filters and explain three methods of reducing ac power line noise.
– Compare methods for reducing electromagnetic and electrostatic coupling.
– Discuss the use of differential measurements and the CMRR.
– Describe ways of reducing ground loop noise and RFI and explain when optical coupling might be used.