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Waste-to-Energy Fundamentals

Waste-to-Energy Fundamentals

Covers fundamentals of waste combustion-characteristics and handling of MSW fuel, furnace designs, waste combustion, and plant operations.

TPC Training Systems is authorized by IACET to offer 0.7 CEUs for this program.

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Lesson 1 - Introduction to Waste Combustion

Topics:

Benefits of converting waste to energy; Environmental regulations; The Clean Air Act; Permit program; Reporting procedures

Learning Objectives:
– Summarize the history of waste handling.
– List some problems associated with landfills and the benefits of waste-to-energy conversion.
– Name the federal regulations that apply to MWCs.
– Explain how NSPS regulations affect the operation of MWCs.
– Explain the permitting program.

Lesson 2 - Characteristics of MSW Fuel

Topics:

MSW definitions, classification, and composition; MSW handling safety; MSW and refuse-derived fuel; MSW compared to fossil fuels

Learning Objectives:
– State the definition of MSW and list some kinds of waste excluded from MSW.
– Explain the various methods of classifying MSW.
– Discuss safety concerns related to the handling of MSW.
– Explain the differences between mass-burn MSW and RDF.
– Compare and contrast MSW and fossil fuels.


Lesson 3 - MSW Handling

Topics:

Solid materials flow path; Weight scale operation; Tipping floor and refuse pit; Receiving and feeding equipment; Front-end conveyor systems; Feed systems; Ash removal

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the MSW flow in a mass-burn and an RDF facility.
– Explain the responsibilities of the weight scale operator.
– Describe the tipping floor and refuse pit.
– Explain how odors are managed in an MSW facility.
– List typical receiving and feeding equipment and explain its functions.
– Describe how conveyors are used in a typical RDF facility.


Lesson 4 - Furnace Designs

Topics:

MWC designs; Mass-burn designs; Rotary combustors; RDF designs

Learning Objectives:
– Explain the impact of corrosion on MWC design.
– Describe mass-burn and RDF feed systems.
– Explain the operation of the following types of stokers: reciprocating grate, reversed reciprocating grate, oscillating grate, roller grate, and traveling grate.
– Define and contrast overfire air and underfire air and explain why the control of combustion air is important.
– Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a rotary combustor.


Lesson 5 - Municipal Waste Combustion

Topics:

The combustion process; Theoretical and excess air; Heating value; Charging rate; Combustor capacity; Combustion temperatures; Reaction rates; Air pollution control equipment; Slag and soot

Learning Objectives:
– Explain the combustion process as it occurs in a municipal waste combustor.
– Name the two main factors that determine feed rate.
– Define the terms theoretical air and excess air and tell why they are important.
– Explain the use of common air pollution control equipment and processes.
– Tell how soot and slag are formed and how they are removed.


Lesson 6 - Ash Handling and Material Recovery

Topics:

Characteristics of MSW ash; Safety and handling requirements; Ash treatment and testing; Transport and loading systems; Material recovery

Learning Objectives:
– List the major ash handling equipment.
– Describe the ash treatment and testing program.
– List the materials recovered from ash.
– List some potential uses for ash.


Lesson 7 - Integrated Plant Operations

Topics:

Principles of plant operation; Operator training; Upset conditions; Operating procedures; Troubleshooting; Basic plant economics

Learning Objectives:
– State the main responsibilities of an MWC operator.
– Define the terms turnover, parameter, and walkdown as they relate to MWC operations.
– Explain the importance of operator training.
– Describe the three upset conditions in an MWC that can be dangerous to personnel and property.
– List the causes and symptoms of common MWC process problems.
– List the three sources of profit in a typical MWC.

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