Lesson 1 - Principles of Absorption Chiller Systems


Mechanical vs. absorption refrigeration systems; Absorption terminology; Single-effect absorption cooling; Common absorption fluid pairs

Learning Objectives:
– Explain the differences between a mechanical refrigeration system and an absorption system.
– Describe the basic components in a simple absorption system and their functions in the refrigeration cycle.
– Distinguish between the characteristics of a weak solution and a strong solution and explain the function of each in the absorption cycle.
– Define the terminology associated with absorption systems.
– Describe the steps in a simple single-effect absorption cooling cycle.

Lesson 2 - Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Systems


Water/lithium bromide systems; Double-effect direct-fired system; Solution flow cycles; Operating characteristics; Crystallization

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss basic characteristics of water/lithium bromide absorption systems and name common industrial uses.
– Describe the differences between single-effect and double-effect absorption systems.
– Discuss the action of the solution and the refrigerant throughout a solution cycle within absorption systems used for heating only, cooling only, and
   simultaneous heating and cooling.
– Compare reverse, series, and parallel solution flow cycles.
– Discuss operating characteristics of various absorption machines and explain how the coefficient of performance (COP) is used in equipment selection.
– Describe the cause of crystallization and its effect on an absorption system.

Lesson 3 - Lithium Bromide Absorption


Controls and Maintenance - Limitations; Control scheme; Start, run, and shut down sequence; Operating limits; Safety controls; Maintenance; Insulation; Noncondensables gases

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss the general operating limits of absorption units, including ASHRAE 15 machine room safety requirements.
– Describe the basics and benefits of today's microprocessor-based operation and capacity control.
– Describe the normal absorption unit start, run, and shutdown sequences.
 – Name various kinds of system operating controls and safety controls and explain their functions.
– Describe general setup and maintenance requirements and the procedures that keep the absorption chiller operating efficiently.
– Discuss the necessity for insulation and control of noncondensable gases, including air.

Lesson 4 - Ammonia/Water Absorption Systems


Ammonia systems background and characteristics; Basic, industrial, and domestic ammonia/water absorption systems; Ammonia system advantages

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss the solubility of ammonia in water and other characteristics, including hazards, that affect ammonia absorption systems.
– Explain the function of the analyzer and rectifier in an ammonia absorption system.
– Define the terms strong aqua and weak aqua as related to the ammonia water solution and compare them with the terms strong solution and weak
   solution as related to a lithium bromide system.
– Describe typical applications for industrial ammonia absorption systems and small residential and commercial ammonia absorption systems.
– Explain the operation of the Platen-Munters ammonia/water/hydrogen system.
– Name reasons why ammonia absorption systems are likely to be used increasingly in the future.

Lesson 5 - Evolving Absorption Systems


Improving COPs; GAX heat pump cycles; Triple-effect cycles; Single-effect system with heat recovery; Double-effect system with solar heating; Power plant heat recovery; Hybrid high-lift pump with mechanical compression

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss reasons for continuing testing and development of advanced absorption systems.
– Describe current developments in the GAX ammonia/water residential heat pump systems.
– Describe triple-effect systems and compare absorption and adsorption cycles.
– Explain how special-application absorption systems use recovered heat, waste heat, or a solar array to provide the energy for operation.
– Describe the properties of non-standard solution pairs.
– Explain how two kinds of hybrid arrangements incorporate the absorption system.

Lesson 6 - Absorption vs. Mechanical Compression


Water/lithium bromide, ammonia/water absorption units; Mechanical compression systems; Chiller selection factors; Economic perspectives; Absorption system application

Learning Objectives: – Describe important characteristics of both single-effect and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chillers and ammonia/water absorption –
– Briefly describe the operation and characteristics of centrifugal chillers.
– Briefly describe the operation and characteristics of reciprocating and screw positive-displacement chillers.
– Name factors that must be considered in selecting air-conditioning equipment for specific applications and compare COPs for the various kinds of
– Discuss general cost criteria for the various types of energy used to drive the equipment and describe an appropriate absorption system application.