Webinar on OSHA Violations

Life after an OSHA Citation: Turning a Black Mark into a Better Workplace

OSHA citations happen: the agency conducted 35,000 inspections in 2015 and cited 65,000 violations for a range of common hazards. The facilities that come back strongest from a citation are the ones that go beyond hazard correction to establish a culture of safe work practices.

Final Control Elements

Final Control Elements

Covers how elements in a closed-loop system affect final control element. Describes components in final control subsystems. Discusses operations and maintenance of solenoids, motors, relay systems, and PLCs. Explains pneumatic actuators and positioners. The online course goes on to describe mechanical advantage in several hydraulic control systems. Compares construction, characteristics, and applications of eight control valves. Traces operation of each element in typical feedwater, turbine, and robotic control systems. Final Control Elements is available in online and course manual formats.

TPC Training Systems is authorized by IACET to offer 0.5 CEUs for this program.

Review a full course list for Instrumentation & Control Systems Technician

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  • Online Course & Test $85.00
  • Course Manual $57.00

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Lesson 1 - Final Control Elements in Process Loops


Compensation; Feedback loops; Performance effects of disturbances; Final control subsystem parts; Amplifiers; Digital signals

Learning Objectives:
– Discuss the function of final control elements in process loops.
– Explain how an actuator is used with the final control element.
– Discuss the effect of a disturbance on the performance of a process loop.
– Describe the three parts of a final control element subsystem.
– Discuss the differences between electric and fluidic control signals in the operation of final control elements.

Lesson 2 - Electric Actuators


Solenoids; Solenoid-operated valves; DC and AC motors; Three-phase and single-phase induction motors; Stepper motors; Relay systems; PLCs

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the operation of a solenoid with a valve.
– Name the basic components of dc and ac electric motors and explain how they work.
– Discuss the advantages of universal motors and stepper motors.
– Explain how an electromechanical relay works.
– Name at least three kinds of relays in use today and give typical applications for them.
– Discuss the applications and advantages of programmable logic controllers.

Lesson 3 - Pneumatic and Hydraulic Actuators


Effects of changing pressure and temperature; Diaphragm, piston and hydraulic actuators; Mechanical advantage; One- and two-way systems

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the basic principles of operation for both pneumatic and hydraulic actuators.
– Discuss the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume in a pneumatic system.
– Compare the operation of direct- and reverse-acting actuators.
– Describe the major components of a simple hydraulic system.
– Discuss the characteristics of proper hydraulic fluid and describe elements of hydraulic system maintenance.

Lesson 4 - Control Valves


Valve components and characteristics; Globe, cage, butterfly, ball, sliding-gate, diaphragm, split-body, proportional/servo, and other valves

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the components of a control valve.
– Compare the operation and advantages of globe, cage, butterfly, ball, sliding-gate, diaphragm, and split-body valves.
– Discuss the operation, advantages, and disadvantages of proportional/servo valves.
– Explain the differences in linear, quick-opening, and equal-percentage flow characteristics.
– Discuss mechanical requirements for valves and valve actuator requirements.
– Explain the relationship of flashing and cavitation to proper control valve selection.

Lesson 5 - Final Control Element Applications


Feedwater and turbine control systems; Sequential and automatic valve control; Control and block valves; Robotic systems

Learning Objectives:
– Describe the sequential valve control used in a typical feedwater control system.
– Describe a typical relay logic system.
– Discuss the use of limit switches for automatic valve control.
– Describe the operation of a hydraulic fluid supply system for a turbine generator.
– Describe the operation of an industrial robotic system.

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