Free Webinar

"The Future of Industrial Training: the New Digital Classroom"

About the Webinar:
At TPC Training Systems, we’ve been on the hunt for ways that our industrial skills training solutions can evolve to meet the needs of all of our customers, and we’ve learned some things in the process. In this webinar, we’ll share what we’ve learned and give you a preview of the future of industrial training.

You’ll learn about:
  • The best uses of webcast and simulcast training formats
  • The advantages of blended online and live training
  • Virtual reality (VR) training environments, including an exclusive sneak peek inside a VR simulation

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    How Control Loops Operate

    How Control Loops Operate

    Covers definition of control loop terms and characteristics. The online course includes specific examples of operation and maintenance of control loops of many kinds. Discusses proportional, integral, and derivative modes in detail. Describes advanced control methods by means of four strategies with specific examples. Examines the effects of loop dynamics on system stability. is available in online and course manual formats.

    TPC Training Systems is authorized by IACET to offer 0.5 CEUs for this program.

    Review a full course list for Instrumentation & Control Systems Technician

    Select Format

    • Online Course & Test $85.00
    • Course Manual $63.00

    Please select a format.

    Lesson 1 - Fundamentals of Control Loops


    Definitions; Process sensors; Sensor characteristics; Controllers; Recorders; Signal conditioners; Final control elements

    Learning Objectives:
    – Explain the difference between an open loop and a closed loop.
    – Define error, feedback, disturbance, and feedforward control.
    – List several kinds of process sensors and describe the operation of each.
    – Explain how accuracy, resolution, sensitivity, linearity, and step response affect sensor operation.
    – Describe the functions of process controllers, recorders, signal conditioners, and final control elements.
    – Explain the basic operation of a typical control loop.

    Lesson 2 - Control Loop Characteristics


    Two-position and floating control; Proportional, integral, derivative, and PID mode; Supervisory control; DDC; DCS

    Learning Objectives:
    – Describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous control modes and give an example of each.
    – Describe the action of the various continuous control modes.
    – Define proportional band, reset time, and rate time.
    – Discuss the advantages of each of the combination control modes.
    – Name several advantages of digital controllers.
    – Discuss the differences between supervisory control, direct digital control, and distributed control systems.

    Lesson 3 - Advanced Control Methods


    Cascade and ratio control system; Feedforward control; Ratio control in a secondary loop; Multivariable control systems

    Learning Objectives:
    – Describe how a cascade control system works.
    – Identify the primary and secondary variables in a cascade loop.
    – Compare feedforward and feedback control.
    – Identify dependent and independent variables in ratio control.
    – Explain the advantage of having a secondary control loop in ratio control.
    – Describe how a multivariable control system works and define interaction.

    Lesson 4 - Loop Dynamics


    Effects of process time lag; Dead time compensation; System stability; Transient response; Gain; Phase shift

    Learning Objectives:

    – Describe two kinds of process time lags and give an example of each.
    – Discuss the effects of capacitance and resistance on loop dynamics.
    – State the three main objectives of a well-designed process control system.
    – Describe how PI, PD, and PID controllers are adjusted to achieve optimum response.
    – Discuss the effects of system gain and phase shift on system stability. 

    Lesson 5 - Loop Protection


    Explosion-proof enclosures; Intrinsically safe instrument systems; Fail-safe mechanisms; Hard and soft constraints; Alarms

    Learning Objectives:

    – Discuss the classification of hazardous locations as identified in the NEC Handbook.
    – Define volatility and flash point, and explain the purpose of a purged enclosure.
    – Describe two kinds of explosion-proof enclosures.
    – Discuss ways of making a system intrinsically safe.
    – Describe examples of fail-safe mechanisms, and differentiate between hard and soft constraints.
    – Compare latching and nonlatching alarm systems, and explain the function of annunciators.
    – Discuss the purpose and operation of interlocked and sequential control.

    Lesson 6 - Process Control Symbols and Drawings


    Symbol recognition; Piping and instrument drawing; Location and installation drawing; Loop and wiring diagram

    Learning Objectives:

    – Recognize standard symbols used in process control diagrams.
    – Describe a process control system through the use of instrument symbols.
    – Recognize and use four kinds of process control diagrams.
    – Analyze a process control drawing for the elements, signal flow, and process flow.

    Lesson 7 - Flowcharts and Electrical Diagrams


    Sequence of operation; Flowchart; Switches; Relays; Electrical elementary diagram; Pump system schematic; PLC diagram; Symbols

    Learning Objectives:

    – Convert sequence-of-operation text to a flowchart.
    – Read electrical and electronic control diagrams and drawings. 
    – Recognize symbols used on electrical and electronic diagrams, including those for PLCs and SAMA logic.
    – Convert electrical diagrams to PLC diagrams.
    – Discuss the role of computers in process control.

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